General Information



North East India comprises:

  • Arunachal Pradesh

  • Assam

  • Manipur

  • Meghalaya

  • Mizoram

  • Nagaland

  • Sikkim

  • Tripura

International Boundaries:




South West


North West





The Macmahon line separates North East India from Tibet. This region is connected with the rest of India only through a narrow corridor in North Bengal, having an approximate width of 33 km on the eastern side and 21 km on the western side. This narrow corridor is popularly known as the "Siliguri neck" or the "Chicken's neck".


Latitude : 21.57°N - 29.30°N

Longitude : 88°E - 97.30°E

Area covered : 262185 Sq. Km


North East India is mostly hilly; it has plains on both sides of the river Brahmaputra and the Himalayan range around it. The flora and fauna of this region is numerous and varied.


The region accounts for 7.9% of the total land space of the country. Hill ranges forming part of the Himalayas guard the northern side of the region. The area is made up of mountains above the snow line and plains a little higher than sea level.


The region is of strategic importance for the country on account of the fact that nearly 90% of its borders form India's international boundaries.


Topography: About 70% of the region is hilly, and the topography varies within each state. Mountains and hills cover most of Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Sikkim and about half of Tripura, one-fifth of Assam and nine-tenth of Manipur.


The plains of the region are mainly made up of separate land masses - the Brahmaputra Valley and the Barak Valley in Assam and the Tripura plains in the South. In Manipur, the valley is small, comprising only about 10% of the total area of the state.


The Brahmaputra Valley stretches longitudinally for about 730 km, from North Lakhimpur to Dhubri district in Assam. The Barak Valley, formed by the river Barak and its tributaries covers the districts of Cachar, Karimganj and Hailakandi of South Assam. The Tripura plain is an extension of the Ganga-Brahmaputra plain.


The topography of the hills is generally rugged and vast areas are inaccessible.


Rainfall: The rainy season in this region generally commences from March and lasts till the middle of October. The total annual rainfall varies significantly in the region. In Khasi and Jaintia Hills, the annual intensity of rainfall reaches the maximum of about 1080-cm around Cherrapunjee and Mawsynram (having highest rainfall in the world). It is significantly low in the rainshadow area of Nagaon district in Assam. About two-thirds of the annual total rainfall occurs during the four monsoon months of June to September.


Major Plantation: Tea


Major Crops: Rice


Major Minerals: Coal, Petroleum, & Natural Gas.


Major Religions: Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism.


Languages spoken: English, Hindi, Assamese, Khasi, Garo, Jaintia, Manipuri, Mizo, Nagamese, Bengali, Nepali, Bhutia (Sikkimese), Bhutia (Tibetan), Lepcha, Limboo, Local dialects.


State-wise Rural and Urban Population, 2021:


State wise Area, Population, Growth Rate, Density, Sex Ratio and Literacy Rate in NE Region according to census 2011:


State wise Population Trends in Northeastern Region, 1921 to 2011:


State wise Distribution of Population according to Census 2011:


State wise Total Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe (Male, Female Rural and Urban) Population according Census 2011:


State wise Number of Literates in NE Region according to census 2011:


State wise Number of Literacy Rate in NE Region according to Census 2011:


State wise Number of Total Worker, Main and Marginal Worker by sex Census of India-2011:


State-wise Unemployment Rate - Usual Status (Adjusted), 1993-94 to 2020-21:


Unemployment Rate and Worker Population in Northeast, 2017-18 to 2019-20: